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¹ҵʹѧĸĸ﷢չʾ

ժҪڸߵȽԼ֪ʶٵʱ£оʹѧҵʹѧתͳΪִߵȽչơ¹ĽڹҵѧTUMŷתɹĴҵʹѧѾԽ˵ŷ޴ҵʹѧķչܹɹ֮ڣùҴϵͳ-ѧҵƻEXISTƻ֧֡õĸУҵĻУƵҵĸṩȫλĴҵЭʵʩ˲ƶȸĸȡ

ؼʣ¹ҵʹѧĽڹҵѧҵ

ǰҵ˼άΪѧעµоʹѧҵʹѧEntrepreneurial UniversityתͳΪִߵȽչһ³Ϲ̿ĻUNESCO199821͵ĸߵȽչжԡǿߵȽӦҵܺʹҵΪĿ꣬ѧĴҵܺڴ˱£Ӧ֪ʶõķչҪҵ˲ųΪߵȽϵ׷Ŀꡣŷ޴ҵʹѧоߴԵѧDzˡ1998꡶ҵʹѧ֯ת͵;йɳŷ޴ҵʹѧķչܹǿļԦġչķչΧԪءѧࡢϵĴҵĻ[1]ĽڹҵѧTechnical University of MunichTUMоʹѧҵʹѧת͵ijɹ䷶չΪŷޱԵĴҵʹѧ20062012꣬Ľڹҵѧƾ䴴ҵʹѧѡ¹ߵȽʷϵĵһӢѧλΪTUMҵʹѧ

ҵҪѧ߱ʦʽ۹⡣ҹҲڻչУҵǸߵȽڷչԡ֯ơ˲δȫӦҵĻƣӴµҵνӻƴȱʧУҵЧ롣[2]оĽڹҵѧת͹Ϊоָ̽УҵķչлƣԱΪҹƶṩ

һĽڹҵѧдҵʹѧת͵ı

֪ʶúͲҵʱ£ѧĹܴӴ֪ʶתΪ֪ʶᡣҵʹѧǵڶѧԺIJѧоԪĽɫ֪ʶº˲ͳϡչѧĽѧкͷְܡ[3]봫ͳоʹѧרעѧͬҵʹѧȡгģʽѧĻ봴ҵĻһ壬ѧзҵ磬Эҵ߾ͬʱҲΪѧУоֵﵽѧ˫Ӯľ档

ѧشҵյʵȣŷ޵Ĵѧͳϲڽѧо̫ܴѧҵչȻ70ľΣ¸ߵȽԤг˶ŷ޴ѧձⲿijԼѧУڲԴѷ˫ѡ[4]ڻѹʹŷ޵Ĵѧϴҵʹѧת֮·УǿѧĴ¾ӪضԪijĽڹҵѧΪת͵ı¡

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ڶõĸУҵĻǵ¹Удҵʹѧת͵Ļ1974¡ѧ˵¹ʷ׸ѧҵγ̡90¹ܶУΪ˴ٽƼɹҵЧϣôҵγ̡1996106ִҵγ̣оʹѧռ58%רƴѧռ42%1998¹ѧУHRKʽҪʹ¹ߵȽΪҵ¯ĿںţƶУҵѧҵ֮ľ롣ԣ¹У촴ҵĻҵΪͨҵѧDZر֪ʶܣ䴴ҵ֧֡

-ѧҵƻEXISTƻǵ¹Удҵʹѧת͵֡üƻ¹߿Ƽսһ֣ŷʻӦоٽѧFHGֺ֧[6]¹֮ҪƳEXISTƻһΪУлעҵ񣬸ƴҵΧƹ㴴ҵDZĴҵ˲ţǼҵͶѧЭͬµĶЭҵոУĿƼ³ɹ֪ʶΪij˾EXISTƻݡ

һǴٽƼɹתתУз滮ͿƼнѰҾDZҵֵļɹҵ߼ɺת¹ѧҵоЭFGFҵоϢƽ̨FGFȫλṩйزҵоҵƻҵƸҵѶ

УDZᴴҵߡ2000EXISTƻӻƻEXIST-SEEDΪѧʦṩEXISTҵ߽ѧEGSȴҵʽ֧֣ɵʦָ䴴ҵѵרҵ֪ʶܡͨҵԡ¹ƳѧҵѵƻҵѧɵСʹҵŶṩʵʲƷ߷ѧԽϤҵĴ¹ѧҵоЭFGF1997ھٰҵ̳ʴҵѵٰϵѧ飬ÿѡУҵоĽ

ڸУҵĻҵ2010EXISTƻEXIST-ҵĻ-ҵѧƻͨѡҵѧٽߵȽĴҵĻ2013ףȫ¹аĽڹҵѧڵʮѧΧüƻ

ǽҵƶȡ¹ѧҵоЭFGF1998ڸѧƶҵƶȣ2014¹ߵȽ110λְҵƸΪҵڡܵҵΪҵĿƼ˲š

Ľڹҵѧдҵʹѧת͵·

ڵ¹ӦüϵУĽڹҵѧTechnical University of MunichTUMоʹѧҵʹѧת͵ijɹ䷶չΪŷޱԵĴҵʹѧĽڹҵѧŷѧ֮һҽҩͻѧͻ깲13λŵ2013¹ѧϻҵ״УĽڹҵѧڴҵ롢ҵжȡҵֺ֧ʹҵĴ߾ӰףIJҵоıΪȫŷǿĴҵоλ

1998ĽڹҵѧҵʹѧתͣЩĸ춨˽贴ҵʹѧĻڴ˻ϣУԵ¹һѧ׿Խ¼ƻΪ2006ɹӢѧС2012꣬УԴҵʹѧΪģͨڶѧ׿Խ¼ƻһ䴴ҵĸĸԣĽڹҵѧתͷչ׶Ρ

һʼ׶Σ19982006

һ׶εĸĸصǸУҵ顣̬֯ĽǶҵʹѧǽڴͳоʹѧҵ֮һŸߵȽĴͳ֯Ļѧ֪ʶΪģһҲ߱ҵ֯IJ1998ĽڹҵѧҵӪ

1.ԷȨΪĵִ֯ڹ߻ල֮γɷȨƺ⡣ߵȽҪһЭȨѧȨ֮ĹϵĽڹҵѧͷݸߵȽеʵڴѧ³нȨΪĵҵʽܹ[7]У13ѧԺǴѧĻλоļо߻Ϊѧ»УܳϢѶܹɡලΪѯίԱѧ»ල鲢Эְ񡣹߻ල֮γ˷ȨƺĹϵ

2.ҵģʽ̹ġ2001ϢѶܹܣCIOƶϢߡ׼ʵʩͳһ쵼ѧУڲϢϵͳϲѧкϢͨڵ¹УSAPR/3ҵԴ滮ϵͳЧԴ֧оԱдԡгֵоĿ

3.עԱѵͼЧУ룬󲿷ֹλøijƸƵĺͬƸλԱд˼ͻЧְڵõְλԱʵָƣУ˼ԱDZܡ

4.ѧȨ·šĽڹҵѧȡԻŻĹģʽЭƽȨѧȨ֮ĹϵѧȨ·ŵϵоġֹģʽ˴ѧеı׶ˡԭעŶӺ쵼ͬ໥֡

5.Դҵʵ塣1998¼תơѯTUM߿Ƽ˾2002ƼҵѵGATEƼIZB2006о뼼תư칫ҵ

תͽ׶Σ20062011

2006ĽڹҵѧԵһѧ׿Խ¼ƻ20062011꣩Ϊδ뷽ҵʹѧĿδ뷽УĽڹҵѧָĸᆱ񣬽ҵʹѧ뷢չоĿϣƽооѧΪλĴͳ֯ģʽս֯ĸͬʱΪֿ֧оУȡ˶ԪʡԻȸĸʩ

1.ǿоѧоDzҵչĺĽڹҵѧȻѧ̿ѧҽѧѧѧΪѧ빤ҵоԱļоƽ̨

1Ľڹҵѧ2005½˸ߵоԺLASʿѧ빤оԺIGSSEĽڹѧԺMSEּڴɷָѧ״̬Ϊѧṩѧơʻоѧϰƽ̨[8]о۽ٵԴ򡢻ʳƷͨŵսʵʩѧơҵʽоУϣ˼ʦѧԽ˼ά͹˼άĺ蹵ʵⷢչ

2ѧMTNTγΪѧṩѧϢѧͿƼĸѧƵרҵѧϰѧͨγѧϰιʵҡҵҵ˽ⲻͬѧƵɫ;ҵѧϰȤͿѧҰ

3ĽƼMCTSעᷢչ̽ѧѧоᷢչ໥Ӱ졢Ƽչ⡢ѧʹڹͨȣŬʵֿѧĵĽڡѧܽΪоһ֣Ĵоɹ

2.ԪijԪʽԴǴҵʹѧչĶĽڹҵѧչѧУоʹ¾ѵԴ2013ΪУʽߴ74%УڹҴϵͳа߽ɫĵ¹оЭᣨDFGռ27%ҵռ16%Уռ11%Ϊ˼ȡʽ𣬸У2007ְЧƶԹͻĽʦ߶УɫʷʽһרҵļĽڹҵѧΪ˳Oʽ1999Ƴ֪ʶ˼ƻʵʩרҵļУ֮ңУѲΪУѧṩ飬ҪԴ֪ʶȨģҵķʽʹоɹҵǽУʹͶĽڹҵѧ2010У2011Ͷ֧DZĴҵŶӡ[9]

3.ʵƽȺ͹ذͥԻ[10]1ŮоԱƸн룬2014еŮԱѴ16%λŷѧ֮ס2Ľ˫ְ칫MDCOṩͥչ֧֣ṩרҵԻжʵиΪԵĹʱͼְģʽְĺ֮ǣרڲѧС3ʵʩƽȾͶƻŮԹ̿ѧѧλҵ4ԱģΪŮʦṩͥѯ

ǿ׶Σ20122017

ڵڶѧ׿Խ¼ƻ20122017꣩УĽڹҵѧҵʹѧ뷢չо֮Ĺϵ۽˲սԡУʦְҵƶ˲ˮȸĸʩԵ¹ͳѧƶȽбͬʱУӪõĴҵΧǿĴҵ磬ϵƽ̨Ϊҵṩ֧֡

1.Ƹס˲šΪѧѧоˮƽǴҵʹѧҪָֻ꣬нϸߵѧˮƽʦʺԴˣĽڹҵѧڴҵչϽס˲ΪҪԡ

1˲ˮ2005УߵоԺIASɶ˲ΪĿ꣬ϣȫλصĶƼ˲š

2ʦְҵƶѧڵ¹òʦᣬ˲ĽڹҵѧƳʦְҵƶΪѧṩȷְҵķչ·ѧߵѧɡ[11]ƶȴ˵¹ͳĽʦְƽƶȣʹѧ߿ְΪڡڡͨʦְҵƶƸεĽԼռʦ30%2020ƻﵽ100λ201436λѧͨʦְҵƶѡΣƽΪ34꣬й˲ռ65%

2.ͨҵУ԰ĴҵĻĽڹҵѧҵĻ͸ѧÿһڣΪҵʹѧṩ֧֡ѧѧҪܴҵרҵѵ˶ʿ׶εĴҵרҵϸγ̶ɴҵڡҵУԼҵʿDzܹҵ¶򣬻Ϊⴴҵѧṩѯ[12]˴ҵγ⣬ĽڹҵѧƳʦͽƻüƻԴڵ¹ְҵʦͽеĴͳԱУѧԽпⴴҵڴҵ顣УҵͨѶģʻTUMгƷƣ׫доɹⷢţͻѧҵĻг

3.ҵ硣ΪЧѧĴҵҪǿĴҵ֧䷢չ1ѧԺ͸ߵоԺѡδҵʹѧԺĴҵչҵʹԺʦѧоҵ֮佨ҵΧѧоʵӦ֮ϵ2רŵĿƼʦΪ´˾ṩָо顣3ҵѯŶҵָŶӺʹ´ҵŶӣЭѧҵ幤ָѧ׫дӪƻ顢ʽ롢רӪҵִյϵȡѧѧҵ֪ʶӪģʽͷչԡλгԡгģɳʺг۲ԺŶӹ;ȣҵȤԸ

4.ϵƽ̨ӲѧкʵִѧҵЧǴҵʹѧҪҲʵִ´ҵȡоѵҪ;Ľڹҵѧȡִʩǿҵĺ

1չУѻУ֮Ա鼰أĿǰǧԱУѡʦѺʿӡУٰ֮ͨ쿯ѵγ̡ֻʽΪУְͱҵṩƽ̨ҵУѻʵʩʦѯƻͨУҵҵָҵ飬ѧУѴԴְҵʽ֧֡

2ƽߵȽʻԣȫΧڼǿ˲ţѧйʻҰĽڹҵѧƳȫƻ¼Уйӡȡձȵ´ȫ150ѧϵΪѧƶʽƻʹѧô´ҵĹʺʶ뼼ܡʿѧ빤оԺIGSSEʿμӸֹѧ飬ҪʿͶڼڹĺѧ3ϵĺоѧѧӴ칫ң2014ѧߴ20%

3УҵлкĽڹҵѧŷ޺ܶҵӡڡȣоѵϽϵѧзʹմҵҵģʽУ¹ҴϵͳеĿлɻȹоЭHGFʻӦоٽѧFHG¹ѧҵоЭFGFеĺϵƸμְڡ

۶ҹʾ

ĽڹҵѧѧͬΪҵͬ壬Ӻ鱤ᳫѧкһתҵչƽ֪ʶʱͿƼɹҵֵעǣŷ˵ĻǨ߱仯ĽڹҵѧתͷչѾԽ˲˵ŷ޴ҵʹѧķչֳܹӶԪ̬ƣֵҹ

һѧУͨȨ·Ȩƺǿ쵼ģȡҵĹģʽϿ˵ǿļԦ۵㡣ǿļԦȷǼ˼ȨҲǼ˷ȨҪУļпƺԺϵ֮ƽ⡣ǣΪĽڹҵѧǿȨһ棬ǿҵļҵֲ˵ĹͬŬǸ˵ĶϡѧĽͳȻҪǿĸ쵼ȨƣǸҪճ쵼ԽֻѧŶȫܴٽüֵۺѧֵ۵Чںϡ

ҹҲ¹ƵĸߵȽƽ⣬ܶ˶ڸı䡢´ҵҵ̬ء[13]ˣҪƾģʽʵʩȷļ쵼;ߣչȫͬʵĴҵֵۺΪģʽγɽϸߵ

ڶоܹͨƽʻǿϵоԽͳѧѧơ֪ʶ߽磬ѧĻ봴ҵĻںϡк˿˵չķչΧѧ۵㡣չķչΧҪУԽͳѧ֯Уѡѧҵͻƽ̨ѧҪУǿѧӣΪѧо˲ʹ´ҵ֪ʶֵעǣĽڹҵѧԽ˿˵Ĺ۵㣬̽һơѧںϵµ·г߼ʹҵ󣬿ƼĹԺϵһ׵õӣͳơѧ޷гԴĽڹҵѧѧѧȴͳƵĽϣҲȡ˺ܴĴҵɼңУڿѧоϹעķչѧĹϵڿѧʹҵ˲Ŀ[14]ҹǰĴҵģʽҲſѧľȱʧҵѧƽΪգѧԺ򹤿ѧԺѧҰխΪ˾ҵ׬Ǯҵ˼·ҹҲӦĽڹҵѧĴҵĻ裬ѧĿѧ̽ѧĸ߶ġ

οף

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[2]ºϣ.չеĴҵʹѧҰʵʩ[J].ȽϽо2011922.

[3]տ.ѧоʹѧҵʹѧ[J].ѧѧо2006436.

[4][].ѧijҵʹѧ°¸[M]..2008145.

[5]GraveB.& HetzeP.& KanigA2013.Grndungsradar 2013.Wie Hochschulen Unternehmensg rndungen frdern.Stifterverband fr die Deutsche Wissenschaft[EB/OL].[2016-12-06].https//www.kfw.de/PDF/Download-Center/Konzernthemen/Research/PDF-Dokumente-Fokus-Volkswirtschaft/Fokus-englische-Dateien/Fokus-Nr.-80-Januar-2015_EN.pdf.

[6]WeingartP. Die unternehmerische Universit.InNach FeierabendZrcher Jahrbuch fr Wissenchaftsgeschichte 6 Universit. Gugerli DHagner MTanner J.Eds.DiaphanesZrich201055-60.

[7]HermannS.Hidden Champions of the Twenty-First CenturyThe Success Strategies of Unknown World Market Leaders.Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg.200958.

[8]Schulte.P.The entrepreneurial universitya strategy for institutional development.Higher Education in Europe2004292187-191.

[9]ΰº.¹ҵʹѧ˲ģʽ̽ĽڹҵѧΪ[J].߽̽2011115.

[10]WeingartP.Dieunternehmerische Universitt.InNach FeierabendZrcher Jahrbuch fr Wissenschaftsgeschichte 6Universitt.Gugerli DHagner MTanner J .Eds. ZrichDiaphanes201055-72.

[11]Debackere K. & Veugelers R. The Role of Academic Technology Transfer Organizations.InImproving Industry Science Links. Research Policy 2005343321-342.

[12]SchulteP. The Entrepreneurial UniversityA Strategy for Institutional Development[J]. Higher Education in Europe 200429 2187-191.

[13].У´ҵ̬ϵо[J].о2012229.

[14]TUM2014d.Studium MINT.Einblick in die Studiengnge der MathematikInformatikInformatikNaturwissenschafeten underTechnik[EB/OL].[2016-12-06].http//www.argh-hamburg.de/de/Studiengnge/Einblick-in-die-Praxis.

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